A laboratory tool used to change or “edit” pieces of a cell’s DNA. CRISPR-Cas9 uses a specially designed RNA molecule to guide an enzyme called Cas9 to a specific sequence of DNA. Cas9 then cuts the strands of DNA at that point and removes a small piece, causing a gap in the DNA where a new piece of DNA can be added. CRISPR-Cas9 is a breakthrough in science that will have important uses in many kinds of research. In cancer research, it may help to understand how cancer forms and responds to treatment as well as new ways to diagnose, treat, and prevent it. [NCI]