• Real World Data (RWD)

    Data relating to patient health status and/or the delivery of health care routinely collected from a variety of sources. RWD can come from a number of sources, for example: electronic health records; insurance claims and billing activities; product and disease registries; patient-generated data including in home-use settings; and data gathered from other sources that can inform on health status, such as mobile devices. [From https://www.fda.gov/science-research/science-and-research-special-topics/real-world-evidence]
  • Real World Evidence (RWE)

    Clinical evidence regarding the usage and potential benefits or risks of a medical product derived from analysis of RWD. RWE can be generated by different study designs or analyses, including but not limited to, randomized trials, including large simple trials, pragmatic trials, and observational studies (prospective and/or retrospective). [From https://www.fda.gov/science-research/science-and-research-special-topics/real-world-evidence]
  • Receptors (immune receptors)

    Proteins on the surface of immune cells that bind to ligands on the surface of other immune cells. This connection typically results in immune cell signaling that regulates specific immune system functions. [Patient Resource LLC]
  • Regulatory T-cells

    T-cells that help maintain the necessity, strength and duration of an immune response by regulating T-cell activity. They shut down the other T-cells at the end of an immune reaction. Certain tumor cells can increase regulatory T-cell activity, which decreases the overall immune response. [Patient Resource LLC]
  • Ribosome

    A structure found inside cells that is involved in making proteins. Ribosomes help link amino acids together to form proteins. [NCI]
  • RNA

    Short for ribonucleic acid. One of two types of nucleic acid made by cells. RNA contains information that has been copied from DNA (the other type of nucleic acid). Cells make several different forms of RNA, and each form has a specific job in the cell. Many forms of RNA have functions related to making proteins. RNA is also the genetic material of some viruses instead of DNA. RNA can be made in the laboratory and used in research studies. [NCI]