• Dendritic cell (DC)

    A type of antigen-presenting cell responsible for processing antigen material and presenting it to the T-cells and B-cells for activation. DCs can also help regulate other immune cells. [Patient Resource LLC]
  • DNA

    Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, the molecules inside cells that carry genetic information and pass it from one generation to the next. [NCI]
  • DNA methylation

    An epigenetic mechanism that occurs by the addition of a methyl group to DNA, thereby often modifying the function of the genes and affecting gene expression. [From https://www.whatisepigenetics.com/dna-methylation/]
  • DNA repair

    The process by which a cell uses a series of special enzymes to repair mutations (changes) in DNA and restore the DNA to its original state. The DNA is constantly mutating and being repaired. This repair process is controlled by special genes. A mutation in a DNA repair gene can cripple the repair process and cause a cascade of unrepaired mutations in the genome. [NCI]
  • Dormancy

    A stage in cancer progression where the cells cease dividing but survive in a quiescent (inactive) state while waiting for appropriate environmental conditions to begin proliferation again. [From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer_dormancy]
  • Downregulation

    Reducing either the overall immune system response or the specific responses of certain immune cells. [Patient Resource LLC]