• B-cells

    Immune cells that produce antibodies for specific antigens that will bind to the antigens and mark them for destruction by other immune cells. [Patient Resource LLC]
  • Bioinformatics

    The science of using computers, databases, and math to organize and analyze large amounts of biological, medical, and health information. Information may come from many sources, including patient statistics, tissue specimens, genetics research, and clinical trials. [NCI]
  • Biologic product

    Medications made from living organisms, such as vaccines, human cells and tissues, and gene therapies. [Patient Resource LLC]
  • Biomarker

    A biological molecule found in blood, other body fluids, or tissues that is a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a condition or disease. A biomarker may be used to see how well the body responds to a cancer treatment. Also called molecular marker and signature molecule. Biomarkers can be detected from invasive procedures (taking blood samples) or by imaging (PET scan). [Adapted from NCI]
  • Biorepository

    Also called a biobank. A facility that collects, catalogs, and stores samples of biological material (biospecimens), such as urine, blood, tissue, cells, DNA, RNA, and protein, from humans, animals, or plants for laboratory research. If the samples are from people, medical information may also be stored along with a written consent to use the samples in laboratory studies. [NCI]
  • Biosimilar

    A biologic drug demonstrated to be similar to a brand name drug already authorized for sale (known as the reference biologic drug). Biosimilars were previously known in Canada as subsequent entry biologics (SEBs). Biosimilars may enter the market after the expiry of reference biologic drug patents and data protections. Biosimilars are regulated as new drugs under the Food and Drugs Act and the Food and Drug Regulations. To obtain authorization as a biosimilar, the drug manufacturer must provide information to Health Canada to show that the biosimilar and the reference biologic drug are similar and that there are no clinically meaningful differences in terms of safety and efficacy between them. [From: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/biologics-radiopharmaceuticals-genetic-therapies/biosimilar-biologic-drugs.html)
  • Biospecimen

    Samples of material, such as urine, blood, tissue, cells, DNA, RNA, and protein from humans, animals, or plants. Biospecimens are stored in a biorepository and are used for laboratory research. If the samples are from people, medical information may also be stored along with a written consent to use the samples in laboratory studies. [NCI]
  • Biostatistics

    The science of collecting and analyzing biologic or health data using statistical methods. Biostatistics may be used to help learn the possible causes of a cancer or how often a cancer occurs in a certain group of people. [NCI]